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 Ap Pound Chapter 14 Outline Dissertation

Garrett Eugair

AP Euro History

Part 14: New Directions in Thought and Culture in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries Notes Nicolaus Copernicus Rejects an Earth-Centered Universe

Biographical information

Shine priest and scientist

educated at the University or college of Krakow

wrote Around the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres in 1543

Commissioned to look for astronomical reason so that the papacy could replace the calendar in order that it could properly calculate the date of Easter, Copernicus's work presented an intellectual springboard from where scientist can posit concerns about Globe's position inside the universe. Ptolemaic System

Ptolemy, a Both roman citizen of Greek ancestry, wrote the Almagest (150CE) was considered the authority on astronomy through the Middle Ages and it advised a geocentric model of the universe. Ptolemaic World System

Above the earth lay a number of concentric spheres, probably liquid in figure, one of which usually contained the moon, one more the sun, and still others the planets and the stars. The outer realm includes God and angels

The problem of the motions with the planets was something astronomers struggled to chart. Ptolemy believed which the planets relocated uniformly of a small ring called an epicycle and the center from the epicycle transferred about a larger circle—called a deferent—with the entire world at or perhaps near their center. The circles in Ptolemy's system were not orbits but rather components of mathematical calculations meant to predict planetary positions. Copernicus's Whole world

Copernicus's Version adopted many elements inside the Ptolemaic style, but moved them to a heliocentric version, which presumed the earth transferred about direct sunlight in a group of friends. He suggested that the even farther planets happen to be away from the sunlight, the longer they took to revolve around it which empowered astronomers to rank the planets when it comes to distance in the sun. Even though very few astronomers embraced the Copernican system—at least for a century—it performed allow other people who were not content with the Ptolemaic view to believe in new directions.

Tycho Brahe (1546-1601) and Johannes Kepler (1571-1630) Make New Scientific Observations Brahe's efforts to research

He did not believe Copernicus's view and spent a lot of life advocating for a geocentric system. This individual posited that Mercury and Venus revolved around the sun but that the celestial body overhead, the sun, and also other planters revolved around the globe. He collected very thorough data of his observations.

Kepler's efforts to science

He analyzed under Brahe and was handed his data when he passed away.

Kepler, contrary to Brahe was obviously a convinced Copernican who found mathematical evidence of a sun-centered universe. He found that in order for heliocentrism to be accurate, planets will need to have an elliptical, rather than circular orbiti. Kepler published his findings in a book referred to as The New Astronomy (1609) through which he used Copernicus's sun-centered model and Brahe's scientific data to solve the problem of planetary motion. Galileo Galilei Argues To get a Universe of Mathematical Laws

In 1609, he used a recently invented telescope to observe the heavens and he saw superstars where non-e had been ahead of, mountains for the moon, areas moving across the sun, and moons orbiting Jupiter. In The Starry Messenger (1610) and Letters upon Sunspots (1613), he utilized his rhetorical skills to dispute that his new evidence—particularly in the stages of Venus—required a Copernican interpretation with the heavens. Galileo taught on the University of Padua ahead of being employed by the Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was a Medici. He made famous the Copernican system and articulated the idea of a universe subject to numerical laws. Copernicus had thought that the heavens conformed to mathematical reliability; Galileo found this regularity throughout almost all physical nature. For many people, the power of the mathematical arguments that appeared irrefutable proved even more persuasive than the new information from physical observation that produced so much...